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Prasa o moskiewskim procesie gen Leopolda Okulickiego



Proces szesnastu – pokazowy proces polityczny przywódców Polskiego Państwa Podziemnego, przeprowadzony przez Rosjan  w dniach 18–21 czerwca 1945 r. w Moskwie. Celem, którego była sowietyzacja Polski oraz likwidacja jej Niepodległości. Co na kilkadziesiąt lat zamknęło w zacofaniu obywateli i ten niepokonany Kraj, walczący o wyzwolenie się z pod buta ruskiego do 1989r. Gdy ZSRR legło w gruzach, a w Polsce doszło do demokratycznych wyborów. Dzięki milionom walczących w strukturach Solidarności.



Generał Leopold Okulicki obrona Polski przez akakwin


The National Library of Australia

 The Sydney Morning Herald, Tuesday 19 June 1945

 SABOTAGE BY POLES  ADMITTED I  Moscow Trial  Evidence  Our Staff Correspondent and A.A.P.  LONDON, June l8.-The trial of 16 prominent Poles on charges of preparing diversionary acts in the rear of the Red Army in Poland opened in the Ballroom of the Trade Union Hall at Moscow to-day, reports the Moscow correspondent of the British United Press. All except one of the accused pleaded wholly or partly guilty.  Moscow Radio »ays that the hearings are in open session under the presidency of Colonel-General Vassili Ulrich, a member of the Plenum of the Supreme Soviet Court.  The Poles, in addition to being charged with organising diversionist activity in the rear of the Red Army, are charged with organising raids by under- ground armed detachments and conducting propaganda hostile to the Red Army and also with failing to hand over radio transmitters, printing equipment, arms, and ammunition and using them for criminal purposes.  "TERRORIST ACTS ORDERED"  Only 15 oí the 16 accused were In the dock. The president of the Court said that the other man, named Jajdak, was too sick to attend. The accused were well dressed and shaven and seemed calm. They all ap- peared to have a command of the Russian language.  According to Moscow Radio, Jansen, one of the accused, who was a commander in the Lwow district, said in evidence: "I re- ceived a special instruction in Warsaw to the effect that terror- ist acts against the Red Army and Russian representatives should be carried out, and pre- cautions taken to shift the guilt on to Ukrainian Nationalists."  Moscow Radio says that Gene- ral Okulicki, former Comman der-in-Chief of the Polish Home Army and one of the accused, admitted in evidence that the Instructions to which Jansen re- ferred were known to him.  Another accused, Jankowski, Vice-Premier of the Polish Government in exile in London, and its delegate to Warsaw,  said: "General Okulicki in- formed me and Ministers of the Polish Underground Government that the underground Krejewa army had been formally dis- banded, but members had to keep their arms, equipment, and radio transmitters in working order. This was done with a view to creating in the rear of the Red Army a new and care- fully camouflaged military poli- tical organisation."  Moscow Radio quoted Jankow ski as adding: "Okulicki in- formed a conference at Crakow, which I and my deputy, Weicko wicz, attended, that he had re- ceived instructions either from the supreme commander of the Polish Army or from the London Polish Government to the effect that it was proposed to form a new and well-camouflaged army based on the underground Kre- jewa army,"  Jankowski explained that the new organisation was to fight for Poland's independence, "which in our opinion was threatened by Russia."  UTMOST PUBLICITY WANTED  General Okulicki made a sur-j prise move early in the trial I  when he demanded that Polish officers, who, he asserted, were In Russian hands, should bel railed as witnesses to actions of the Polish People's Army and relations between the People's Army and the Red Army In Poland General Okulicki is also accused of conducting intelli- gence work and spying against  the Red Army  Genei ! Okulicki also asked that »udenec should be taken from n British ofncei whase name he could  nnt remembei  The Court ipserved Its decision on the lequel  The prosecutions indictment cited an 01 dei alleged to have been Issued bv Geneial Okulicki addiessed to a Colonel Slaboia on March 22 in which OkuhcU said A So\ict vic toi y over Geimany will threaten not only  Britain s inteiests throughout Euiope .mt all Euiope as well Considenn? the Bnti,h aie inteiestcd in Euiope Rntain will mobilise all Eui ope s foi ces Into an anti-Soviet bloc"  Ru.sia is not attempting lo withhold tiom the world detiiH oí pioccedinRs in the ma=.s tua! of the Ifi POIPS who Terr iiipsfpri in Mairli while on their «v to a onnfripnrp in Moscow On 'he connan the Soviet appeals de- e-mined that the trial shall receive the utmost publicity  No "Gesture" Likely  Elaborate ananqements ha\e been made to engine thal the Piess will be kept well informed Passes ha\e  been issued lo the lol euri conespon dents in Moscow ¡mci thousands of photograph, and films will b° distn buieri a> quickh as possible through  out Pus=m and abioari Iheie is even tlip possibilité that the mai ma/ be broadcast. Allied Embassies liaxe been invited to send lepresentatnes in otaer that the\ will he able to tepon b?rk to their Go\ernments  General Uli ich \\TS piesirient of the Couit which tried and found puilty the British Metiopolitan-Vickeis ensineeis on espionage and wieckins ehaigcs in 10J1 He was also Judpe at the tieason tuais of Kimcnev and Zinouei in Uli ind lîidek in 1937 ill or whom ^ »le impii oned foi complicity in anti Stil plots  The sugestión in some ne\ sn>peis, sbioad that M"i«,hal Stilin misht re  lease the Poles "as a gesture" has not been well received in Moscow. Rus- sians say that it is no more in Stalin's power to do so than it would be in Mr. Churchill's power to intervene in cases of people accused under British military law and awaiting trial.  According to one report from Mos- cow, evidence to be submitted against (he Poles is more likely to help rather than to hinder the formation of a new Polish Government.  The Moscow talks on broadening the Polish Provisional Government seem to have made a ?ood beginning. The fact that the three groups of Poles invited to the consultations have already met on their own initiative is regarded as a most hopeful sign.  The conference Is almost entirely Left-wing. None of those of the RiRht. or Centre who have most out- spokenly criticised the existing Pro- visional Government have been Invited to participate.  Yalta Agreement  If the conference succeeds-if M Mikola.iczyk, former Premier of the exiled Polish Government in London, and the others find they can serve a broadened Government then the Provisional Government ol National ¡.nity. is it Is to be called, will be recognised by Britain and America in accordance with '-he Yalta agreement. The Soviet alone recognises the present Provisional  Government.  Nongovernment Pole* who have so far arrived from Poland are mainly in sympathy with the Provisional Government, and a third aelepate now chosen from London, M. Anton Kolori ziej, is an open supporter of the Pro- visional Government's policy.


The Daily News , Thursday 21 June 1945

[?]  LONDON, Thurs — Major-General Leopold Okulicki, former commander of the Polish Home Army, has been sentenced in Moscow to ten years' 'depriva- tion of freedom' on charges of sabotage, terrorism, espionage. Of the other 14 whose trial ended today, 11 were sentenced to terms ranging . from four months to eight years. Three were acquitted. A sixteenth Pole has been too ill to attend the trial. He will be tried later.  Terms to which the Court sen tenced the eleven men were: Jankowski, eight years; Adam Belli, five years; Jasinkowicz, five years; Puzak, 18 months; Baginski, one year; Zwerzinski, eight months; Czernik, six months; Stypulkowski, Urbanski, Chicinski, Meszwa, each four months. Three men acquitted were Stemler, ' Mihalowski, Kibylanski. Quartet Denounced Prosecutor told the Court yesterday that he would not ask for a verdict of guilty against three of the Poles be cause of lack of evidence and that he would ask for only short terms of 'deprivation of liberty' for eight others. But he would demand longer sen tences against Okulicki, Jankowski. Jasinkowicz and Bien. He scathingly denounced this quartet. . , 'We bow our heads in honour of the memory of hundreds of Red Army soldiers and hundreds of ..So-, viat citizens killed and tortured to death by the scoundrels of. Okulicki'a Polish home army,' he said. 'The evil schemes of the ac cused were directed against the army of heroes and liberators. ? 'They knew no bounas in tnetr ?in- solence.' ' ; In his final plea, Okuiicki said: . 'You cannot prove that we did not fight the Germans for five years. 'Poland's best patriots and demo-, crats participated in this fight. '.Don't accuse us of collaborating '. -?pith the Germans because : that would take away our honour.' Okulicki said that he felt no en mity towards the Soviet Union. 'I . was guided not by enmity but by suspicion and acted defensively,' he «aid. 'I did my duty. . 'I know my people sincerely want friendship with the So viet Union. So do I but on one condition — that Poland's indepen dence should be preserved. 'There will be no friendship if the Soviet Union wants to enslave Poland. The Polish people love free dom.' 'Misled' Addressing the Court on behalf of 12 of the accused, defending counsel ?? pleaded for acquittals for nine and 'maximum leniency' for the other three on the ground that the London Government misled them into believ- - ? ing that they were doing their duty '. to Poland. . ' The other accused spoke in their own defence. .-.-.. ? Said Okulicki VHi his 'last words' before the verdict: 'I am guilty but, as a soldier, I was forced by circumstances to do what I did.' Polish Telegraph agency, which is .? . the news and propaganda agency for the London Polish Government, de-. clares that underground forces car ried out the orders they received to co-operate with the Red Army and disclose themselves during the Red Army's advances in Poland. It alleges ? that the Soviet military authorities, after availing themselves T)f the help of the underground forces.' disarmed units and arrested their' - commanders, some of whom were shot and others deported. ' . © As well as terrorism against Red Army men and sabotage, charges against the Poles included posses sion and use of illegal radio trans mitters and dissemination of anti Soviet propaganda, Okulicki was the only one charged toith espion age. .Czernik was chairman of the Polish Union of Democrats, Bagin ski was vice-president of the Peasant Party.

The West Australian , Friday 22 June 1945
 POLES' FATE.   IMPRISONMENT TERMS. OKULICKI 10 YEARS. "I DID MY DUTY." LONDON. June 21.-The trial was concluded in Moscow today of the 16 Polish leaders accused of fifth   column activities behind the Red   Army lines. General Okulicki (who succeeded General Bor as C-in-C of the London Polish Government's underground army) was sentenced to 10 years "deprivation of freedom." Jankowski (Vice-Premier in the Lon- don Government) received eight years, and Jasinkowicz and Bien five years each. Other sentences were: Czernik. six months; Chacinski and Miesziva. four months each; Zwerzinski, eight months; Puzak. 18 months; Bagin- ski, 12 months; Stypulkowski and Urbanski four months each. The sentences are effective from the date of arrest. Three of the accused--Stemler. Mihalowski and Kibylanski-were acquitted. When the trial was resumed yes- terday afternoon the Prosecution an- nounced that it did not now ask for a verdict of guilty in the case of three of the accused, because of   lack of evidence. Also it would ask   only for a short period of "depriva-   tion of liberty" for another eight but would demand longer sentences for Okulicki, Jankowski, Jasinkowicz and Adam Bien. "Evil Schemes" In his final address the Prosecu- tar scathingly denounced this quartet. "We bow our heads in honour of the memory of hundreds of Red Army soldiers and officers and hundreds of Soviet citizens who were killed or tortured to death by the scoundrels of the Polish Home Army', re declared. The evil schemes   of the defendants were directed against an army of heroes and   liberators They knew no bounds in their insolence. General Okulicki in a final plea   isaid: "The trial has a political   character. You cannot prove we did not fight the Germans for five years. Poland's best patriots and democrats participated in this fight. Don't   accuse us of collaborating with the   Germans because that would take away our honour. You are accusing 300,000 members of the Home Army -the Polish people." General Okulicki added that he felt no enmity towards the Soviet, Union. "I was guided not by enmity but by suspicion, and acted defen- ively" he said. "I did my duty. I know my people sincerely want friendship with the Soviet Union. So do I, but on one condition-that Poland's independence should be pre- served. There will be no friendship if the Soviet Union wants to enslave Poland. The Polish people love free-   dom."   After a brief adjournment the ac-   cused, in accordance with Russian legal custom, were allowed to say their "last words" before the Judges   announced their verdict. General   Okulicki said: "I am guilty, but as   a soldier I was forced by circum- stances to do what I did."

 Morning Bulletin , Wednesday 9 May 1945

WARSAW RADIO
OUTBURST AGAINST ARRESTED POLES
LONDON, May 7.-The Russian controlled Warsaw provisional
Government's radio declared to-
day: "Public opinion in Poland received with indignation news ot the action of M. Okulicki and his accomplices, who are accused ot carrying out diversionary activity against the Red Army, because these activities were also directed against the reborn Polish State and constitute high treason.
"The provisional Government re- serves the right to demand that M. Okulicki and his accomplices be turned over to the Polish authori-; ties in order to be indicted before the courts of the republic as well."

 The Daily News , Wednesday 20 June 1945


LONDON, Wed — Admission that he had worked for the creation of a European bloc consisting of Poland, England and Germany was made by General Okulicki during cross examination at his trial in Moscow yesterday. General Okulicki, who succeeded General Bor as Commander-in-Chief of the London Pol ish Government's underground army, is one of 16 Poles accused of fifth column activities
behind the Red Army lines. Okulicki also admitted that al though' he had disbanded the Home Army he had preserved ? underground cadres 'for .a future war with Russia should she ilireaten Poland's independence.' Reporting . this, the British United Press man in Moscow says that Okulicki stated that he carried out instructions contained in an order from the London Polish Government, dated December 12. Order, read out in Court,, in structed: 'It is necessary to carry out a great deal of legal arid under ground work in .Poland. The only legal government is the London Goy-. ernment. We must wipe out the il legal Lublin Committee. 'TO FIGHT'* Said Okulicki: 'Purpose of ourAnew organisation was, to fight for Poland's, independence, to fight anybody who infringed that independence. The in vader, was, to be destroyed.' Cross-examined, he admitted that this also meant the Red Army, but ' strongly denied the accusation that he had knowledge of or -directed ter roristic activities. Future invaders were to be liquid ated, he said. He denied . the prosecution's - charges that he sanctioned ter rorism in the' eastern districts, said, that he was unable to con trol members of the underground movement in that region as they were, out pf communication. He said that his last contact with them was last November, when he ordered -that the units should be dis banded. Judge Ulrich asked Okulichi what he understood by self-defence. Oku licki replied that it meant selfde fence against Lublin spies. The Judge: Did it also mean against Russian citizens ? . Okulicki: Yes. LONDON TELEGRAM The prosecutor, cited a London Polish ?? Government telegram, dated November 11, ordering espionage of the most elaborate character, because 'it was important for the London Governments future plans.' Okulicki acknowledged receipt of the telegram, said that he had carried out its instructions. He admitted sending a message to London on the forthcoming Red Army offensive, but said that the telegram was based on information he had of German preparations. He visited London Headquarters for a second time, then returned to Poland where he was arrested on March 27. Said Judge Ulrich: 'We won't go into details of the arrest.' Prosecution claims that the 16 Poles whose arrest last month caused international tension, have all con fessed to heading an illegal organisa tion on instructions from the Polish Government in London.

 Advocate , Thursday 21 June 1945

WORKED TO CREATE
EUROPEAN BLOC
LONDON, Wednesday.-Cross, examined at to-day's session of tho Moscow trial of 16 Poles, General Okulicki admitted that he had. worked for the creation of a European bloc comprising Poland, England and Germany. Although ho disbanded tho home army, he preserved tho underground cadres for a future war against Russia should she threaten Poland's inde pendence.
Okulicki said ho carried out tho in structions contained in tho Londou Po lish Government's order of Dee. 8, which was rend out in court. This order instructed "It is necessary to carry out a great deal of legal and underground work in Poland. Tho only legal Government is tho London Government. We must wipe int tho il legal Lublin Committee," it said.
FIGHT ANYBODY.
Okulicki added: "Tho purpose of our new organisation was to fight for Poland's independence; fight anybody who infringed that independence. The in vader was to be destroyed."
Under cross.oxainntion, ho admitted that this also meant «tho. Hod Army, but strongly denied tho accusation that ho had any knowledgo of or di rected terroristic activities. "Invaders wero to bo liquidated in future," ho
added.
Ho denied tho prosecution's charges that he sanctioned terrorism iu east ern districts, and said ho was unable to control tho underground-movement in that region, as it was out of com munication. His last contact with it was in November, when ho ordered that tho.units be disbanded. e
.Judge Ulrich asked Okulicki what ho understood by self-defence.
Okulicki replied that it meant self defeneo against tho Lublin spies.
Judgo Ulrich: Did it also meau against Russian citizens?
Okulicki: Yes,
ESPIONAGE ORDERED.
Tho prosecutor cited a London Po lish Government telegram dated Nov. ll ordering espionage of tho most elab orate character because "It is impor. tant for tho London Government's fu turo plans."
Okulicki acknowledged receipt of tho telegram and carried out its in structions. Ho admitted sending a mes sage to London about tho forthcoming Red Anny offensive,- but said it was based on information ho had of Ger man preparations. Ho said ho visited Londou headquarters a second timo and then returned to Poland, whero ho was
arrested on March 27.
LONDON, Wednesdny. - Thc Prague Radio snys the Czechoslovak Government has accepted the Soviet's offer to settle in Moscow all outstanding Czecho-Polisb questions. A Czech delegation is proceed ing to Moscow.

 The Mercury , Thursday 21 June 1945

POLISH UNDERGROUND KEPT SECRETS FROM]
wim M. L i - -- ?. M. - - i i m - -> . ,_'_?_ _._:_.1,
FORMER PREMIER *
Admissions At Moscow Trio I
;. i Australian Associated Press
' "MOSCOW, Wed. - Evgeni Czernik, chairman of the.
Polish Union of Democrats, one of the 16 Poles be- . ing tried in Moscow foi- fifth column activity against the Red Army, said in evidence that Polish-underground secrets were kept from M Mikolajczyk when he was Pre- mier of the London Polish Government.
'{"^ZERNIK said the commander
of the Polish Home Army .', (Major-Gen Okulicki) told him
: Mikolajezyk must not ,be told of
"the; existence of underground or-
ganisations. .' ; ?. ;
If Mikolajczyk reached agree- ment, with the Lublin Committee, . Okulicki said he wanted to
struggle for Poland's independ- ence, ; primarily against the Lub-
lin . Government.
Czernik.^contradicted : Okulicki's statement that Okulicki had hot ' actively, participated in or had . knowledge- of subversive activity
against the Red Anmy.
Okulicki told him in February that the underground men should find good means of com. munication to carry out such
work. -
Another defendant, Kazimierz Baginski, vice-president of the ', Peasant Party, 'said his home. , ai-jmy units retained their weapons
. after joining the underground.
They eventually decided tb come
out into the open.
On March 17, they went to see, Soviet- Col Pinenov, and were ar- rested. .
The prosecutor: It was too late by then. Some 'of "you were; ai-rested on .March 8: The' Soviet1 intelligence had located you by then. s .
Baginski said his personal con- viction .was., that full support should be given to. Mikcilajczyk ' whose policy was to try to find a ' way out.
lt seemed madness to. pursue a policy of terrorism" when the Red , Army was fighting the Germans.
Okulicki, under cross-examin- ation, admitted that Gen Sos nowski, former Polish C-in-C in London, had instructed him to continue the struggle against the Germans, but to prepare the Underground movement for the eventuality of a Russian at- tempt to convert Poland into a Soviet republic.
. Okulicki testified that he para-"
chuted into Poland, on May 21, 1944, from a Liberator piloted by y Poles, but later declared it *was- a
British Liberator from a. British base jn Italy, where he command- ed a Polish division.
He met Gen Bc-r shortly before the battle for Warsaw, and found * Bor acquainted with the London
Poles' instructions. ' r
Okulicki admitted he had work- ed for the creation of a Europ
ean bloc of Poland, Britain, and Germany.
He added that although he dis- banded the home army, he pre- served underground cadres "for future war with Russia should she threaten Poland's independence."
Okulicki said he carried out in- structions in the London Polish Government's order of Dec. 8 which Ayas read in coui't.
.The order instructed: "It is necessary .to carry out a great" deâl of legal and underground work in Poland:
.'The only . legal Government is the London Government. We must ' wipe out the illegal Lublfn Committee."
Okulicki said: "The purpose of our new .organisation was to fight for Poland's independence and fight anybody who infringed that indepèndence. The invader was to be destroyed.'! .
''.Okulicki'.. admitted' this also meant'the Red Army, but . he strongly denied.an accusation that he. had any knowledge of or dir-
ected terroristic activities.
He denied the prosecution's charges that he sanctioned terror- ism in the eastern districts.
Judge Ulrich asked Okulicki what he understood by self-de- fence. '
' Okulicki: It meant self-defence against' the Lublin spies.
' Ulrich: Did it also"mean against Russian citizensV-Yes. -
The prosecutor asked Jankow ski, another of the accused: "What do" you think was harmed by the diversionary activities?"
Jankowski, in a low voice: The common cause of the Allies.
" Whom did they help?^-They helped the Germans.
A 22-year-old witness, Klendo, of the .Polish home army, said he had been trained in sabotage."
He blew up a. railway on Sept. 17, 1944, on orders 'from, the special underground command, and also took , part in a raid on a Red Army camp.
A witness,' Urbanowicz, describ- ed raids, against Soviet guerillas by detachments" under the com- mand'of a-Pole named Radner
He said one of Radnerls detach-
ments'.executed a "number of, people for helping partisans.
Râdnèr's units, after -the " Red Army's arrival attacked Red Army troops and organised looting expe- ditions. . Polish' home army men on Oct. 27, 1944, captured a Red Army lieutenant and killed him..

 The Argus , Thursday 21 June 1945

SECRETS KEPT FROM
POLISH PM
Accused's Admission In Moscow Trial
From Our Own Correspondent in
London and AAP
In evidence at the trial in Moscow of the 16 Poles accused of fifth column activities behind the Red Army lines, Evgeni Czernik, chair- man of the Union of Democrats, and one of the defendants, said that Polish underground secrets were kept from Mr Mikolajczyk when the latter was Premier in the London Polish Government.
Czernik said General Okulicki told him that Mr Mikolajczyk must not be told of the existence of the un- derground organisations if Mr Miko- lajczyk reached agreement with the Lublin committee.
General Okulicki told him also that he wanted the struggle for Poland's independence to be primarily against the Lublin Government.
Czernik contradicted General Oku- licki's statement that the latter had not actively participated in or had knowledge of subversive activity against the Red Army.
General Okulicki, under cross examination, admitted that General Sosnowski, Polish C-in-C in Lon- don, instructed him to continue the struggle against the Germans, but to prepare the Underground move- ment for the eventuality of a Rus- sian attempt to convert Poland into a Soviet republic.
Okulicki said he landed in Poland by parachute on May 21, 1944, from a Liberator piloted by Poles. Later he declared that it was a British Liberator, from a British air base in Italy, where he commanded a Pol-
ish division.
At Tuesday's session General Oku- licki admitted that he had worked for the creation of a European bloc consisting of Poland, England, and Germany.
The prosecution announced yester- day that "owing to the clarity of the case" it was unnecessary to call the remaining 11 witnesses.
The Court President, Colonel-Gene- ral Ulrich, said two of the witnesses asked by General Okulicki would be called, but three others could not be found. Owing to bad weather, he said, the plane carrying the two witnesses would be unable to reach Moscow for two days.
The National Library of Australia
trove.nla.gov.au/


Wystawa Proces szesnastu moskiewski, udostępniana przez IPN

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